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Memphis or Men-nefer (Arabic: مَنْف Manf  pronounced [mænf]; Bohairic Coptic: ⲙⲉⲙϥⲓ; Greek: Μέμφις) was the ancient capital of Inebu-hedj, the first nome of Lower Egypt that was known as mḥw ("north"). Its ruins are located in the vicinity of the present-day village of Mit Rahina (Arabic: ميت رهينة), in markaz (county) Badrashin, Giza, Egypt. Its proclaim is derived from the late Ancient Egyptian read out for Memphis mjt-rhnt meaning "Road of the Ram-Headed Sphinxes".

Along when the pyramid fields that stretch upon a desert plateau for higher than thirty kilometers upon its west including the well-known Pyramids of Giza, they have been listed as the World Heritage Site Memphis and its Necropolis. The site is open to the public as an open-air museum.

According to legends joined in the into the future third century BC by Manetho, a priest and historian who lived in the Ptolemaic Kingdom during the Hellenistic mature of ancient Egypt, the city was founded by King Menes. It was the capital of ancient Egypt (Kemet or Kumat) during the Old Kingdom and remained an important city throughout ancient Egyptian history. It occupied a strategic tilt at the mouth of the Nile Delta, and was house to vivacious activity. Its principal port, Peru-nefer (not to be embarrassed with Peru-nefer at Avaris), featured a high density of workshops, factories, and warehouses that distributed food and merchandise throughout the ancient kingdom. During its golden age, Memphis thrived as a regional middle for commerce, trade, and religion.

Memphis was believed to be under the auspices of the god Ptah, the patron of craftsmen. Its great temple, Hut-ka-Ptah (meaning "Enclosure of the ka of Ptah"), was one of the most prominent structures in the city. The declare of this temple, rendered in Greek as Aἴγυπτoς (Ai-gy-ptos) by Manetho, is believed to be the etymological pedigree of the avant-garde English name Egypt.

The records of Memphis is nearby linked to that of the country itself. Its eventual downfall is believed to have been due to the loss of its economic significance in late antiquity, following the rise of coastal Alexandria. Its religious significance was diminished after the abandonment of the ancient religion later than the Edict of Thessalonica (380 AD), which made Nicene Christianity the sole religion of the Roman empire.

Today, the ruins of the former capital offer fragmented evidence of its past.

Memphis has had several names during its archives of all but four millennia. Its Ancient Egyptian declare was Inebu-hedj (𓊅𓌉, translated as "the white walls").

Because of its size, the city as well as came to be known by various further names that were the names of neighbourhoods or districts that enjoyed considerable prominence at one become old or another. For example, according to a text of the First Intermediate Period, it was known as Djed-Sut ("everlasting places"), which is the name of the pyramid of Teti.

At one narrowing the city was referred to as Ankh-Tawy (meaning "Life of the Two Lands"), stressing the strategic turn of the city along with Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt. This reveal appears to date from the Middle Kingdom (c. 2055–1640 BCE), and is frequently found in ancient Egyptian texts. Some scholars preserve that this post was that of an area that contained a sacred tree, the western district of the city that lay surrounded by the great Temple of Ptah and the necropolis at Saqqara.

At the dawn of the New Kingdom (c. 1550 BC), the city became known as mn-nfr (anglicized as Men-nefer, meaning "enduring and beautiful"), which became "Memfi" (ⲙⲉⲙϥⲓ) in Bohairic Coptic. The name "Memphis" (Μέμφις) is the Greek becoming accustomed of the make known that they had total to the pyramid of Pepi I, located west of the city.

The unbiased town Mit Rahina probably conventional its publish from the ancient Egyptian complex name for Memphis mjt-rhnt meaning "Road of the Ram-Headed Sphinxes" being a insinuation to the ancient causeway connecting Memphis and Saqqara, on which the procession of the dead bull travelled for burial in the Serapeum of Saqqara.

While attempting to fascination ancient Egyptian history and religious elements into that of their own traditions, the Greek poet Hesiod in his Theogony explained the name of the city by proverb that Memphis was a daughter of the Greek river god Nilus and the wife of Epaphus (the son of Zeus and Io), who founded the city and named it after his wife.

In the Bible, Memphis is called Moph.

The Muslim tradition adopted the Coptic etymology which operates as soon as an etymon Māfah, derived from Coptic: ⲙⲁⲁⲃ, lit. 'thirty'. It made the number significant in the behind traditions relating to Memphis: it was thirty miles long, Manqāwus built it for his thirty daughters and Baysar lived here with his thirty children.

The city of Memphis is 20 km (12 mi) south of Cairo, on the west bank of the Nile. The advocate cities and towns of Mit Rahina, Dahshur, Abusir, Abu Gorab, and Zawyet el'Aryan, south of Cairo, all lie within the administrative borders of historical Memphis (29°50′58.8″N 31°15′15.4″E / 29.849667°N 31.254278°E / 29.849667; 31.254278). The city was also the place that marked the boundary between Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt. (The 22nd nome of Upper Egypt and 1st nome of Lower Egypt).

Today, the footprint of the ancient city is uninhabited. The closest modern unity is the town of Mit Rahina. Estimates of historical population size differ widely in the course of sources. According to Tertius Chandler, Memphis had some 30,000 inhabitants and was by far-off the largest treaty worldwide from the get older of its foundation until nearly 2250 BC and from 1557 to 1400 BC. K. A. Bard is more cautious and estimates the city's population to have numbered nearly 6,000 inhabitants during the Old Kingdom.

During the Old Kingdom, Memphis became the capital of Ancient Egypt for beyond eight consecutive dynasties. The city reached a height of prestige under the Sixth Dynasty as a middle for the esteem of Ptah, the god of commencement and artworks. The alabaster sphinx that guards the Temple of Ptah serves as a memorial of the city's former power and prestige. The Memphis triad, consisting of the creator god Ptah, his consort Sekhmet, and their son Nefertem, formed the main focus of adulation in the city.

Memphis declined after the Eighteenth Dynasty later the rise of Thebes and the New Kingdom, but was revived below the Persians, before falling firmly into second place past the founding of Alexandria. Under the Roman Empire, Alexandria remained the most important Egyptian city. Memphis remained the second city of Egypt until the creation of Fustat (or Fostat) in 641 AD. Afterward it was largely abandoned and became a source of rock for the surrounding settlements. It was nevertheless an imposing set of ruins in the twelfth century, but soon became Tiny more than an expanse of low ruins and scattered stone.

The legend recorded by Manetho was that Menes, the first king to fuse the Two Lands, established his capital upon the banks of the Nile by diverting the river taking into account dikes. The Greek historian Herodotus, who tells a similar story, relates that during his visit to the city, the Persians, at that lessening the suzerains of the country, paid particular attention to the condition of these dams for that reason that the city was saved from the annual flooding. It has been theorised that Menes may have been a mythical king, similar to Romulus of Rome. Some scholars suggest that Egypt most likely became unified through mutual need, developing cultural ties and trading partnerships, although it is undisputed that the first capital of allied Egypt was the city of Memphis. Some Egyptologists had identified the legendary Menes like the historical Narmer, who is represented upon the Palette of Narmer conquering the territory of the Nile Delta in Lower Egypt and establishing himself as king. This palette has been obsolete to ca. 31st century BC and thus, would correlate later the legend of Egypt's unification by Menes. However, in 2012 an inscription depicting the visit of the predynastic king Iry-Hor to Memphis was discovered in the Sinai. Since Iry-Hor predates Narmer by two generations, the latter cannot have been the founder of the city. Alternatively, Epaphus (king of Egypt, whose wife was Memphis) is regarded in the Greek myths as the founder of Memphis, Egypt.

Little is known just about the city of the Old Kingdom. It was the permit capital of the powerful kings, who reigned from Memphis from the date of the First Dynasty. According to Manetho, during the antediluvian years of the reign of Menes, the chair of faculty was farther to the south, at Thinis. According to Manetho, ancient sources suggest the "white walls" (Ineb-hedj) or "fortress of the white wall" were founded by Menes. It is likely that the king customary himself there to better rule the new union amid the two kingdoms that formerly were rivals. The technical of Djoser of the Third Dynasty, located in the ancient necropolis at Saqqara, would next be the royal funerary chamber, housing everything the elements valuable to royalty: temples, shrines, ceremonial courts, palaces, and barracks.

The golden age began with the Fourth Dynasty, which seems to have furthered the primary role of Memphis as a royal address where rulers established the double crown, the divine manifestation of the unification of the Two Lands. Coronations and jubilees such as the Sed festival were celebrated in the temple of Ptah. The olden signs of such ceremonies were found in the chambers of Djoser.

During this period, the clergy of the temple of Ptah came into being. The importance of the temple is attested subsequently payments of food and supplementary goods essential for the funerary rites of royal and noble dignitaries. This temple also is cited in the annals preserved on the Palermo Stone, and beginning from the reign of Menkaura, we know the names of the high priests of Memphis who seem to have worked in pairs, at least until the reign of Teti.

The architecture of this times was same to that seen at Giza royal necropolis of the Fourth Dynasty, where recent excavations have revealed that the valuable focus of the kingdom at that get older centred upon the construction of the royal tombs. A strong suggestion of this notion is the etymology of the broadcast of the city itself, which matched that of the pyramid of Pepi I of the Sixth Dynasty. Memphis was after that the heir to a long artistic and architectural practice, constantly encouraged by the monuments of preceding reigns.

All these necropoleis were amid camps inhabited by craftsmen and labourers, dedicated exclusively to the construction of royal tombs. Spread beyond several kilometres stretching in all directions, Memphis formed a legitimate megalopolis, with temples related by sacred temenos, and ports related by roadways and canals. The perimeter of the city correspondingly gradually Elongated into a Big urban sprawl. Its middle remained around the temple puzzling of Ptah.

At the start of the Middle Kingdom, the capital and court of the king had moved to Thebes in the south, leaving Memphis for a time. Although the seat of political capacity had shifted, Memphis did remain perhaps the most important public notice and artistic centre, as evidenced by the discovery of handicrafts districts and cemeteries, located west of the temple of Ptah.

Also found were vestiges attesting to the architectural focus of this time. A large granite offering table on behalf of Amenemhat I mentioned the erection by the king of a shrine to the god Ptah, master of Truth. Other blocks registered in the name of Amenemhat II were found to be used as foundations for large monoliths preceding the pylons of Ramses II. These kings were moreover known to have ordered mining expeditions, raids, or military campaigns beyond the borders, erecting monuments or statues to the consecration of deities, evinced by a panel recording credited acts of the royal court during this time. In the ruins of the Temple of Ptah, a block in the publish of Senusret II bears an inscription indicating an architectural commission as a present to the deities of Memphis. Moreover, many statues found at the site, later restored by the New Kingdom kings, are approved to kings of the Twelfth Dynasty. Examples count up the two rock giants that have been recovered amidst the temple ruins, which were complex restored under the reveal of Rameses II.

Finally, according to the tradition recorded by Herodotus, and Diodorus, Amenemhat III built the northern get into of the Temple of Ptah. Remains official to this king were indeed found during the excavations in this area conducted by Flinders Petrie, who declared the connection. It is moreover worth noting that, during this time, mastabas of the tall priests of Ptah were build up near the royal pyramids at Saqqara, showing that the royalty and the clergy of Memphis at that times were to the side of linked. The Thirteenth Dynasty continued this trend, and some kings of this stock were buried at Saqqara, attesting that Memphis retained its place at the heart of the monarchy.

With the hostility of the Hyksos and their rise to power ca. 1650 BC, the city of Memphis came under siege. Following its capture, many monuments and statues of the ancient capital were dismantled, looted, or damaged by the Hyksos kings, who sophisticated carried them off to adorn their supplementary capital at Avaris. Evidence of royal propaganda has been external and ascribed to the Theban kings of the Seventeenth Dynasty, who initiated the reconquest of the kingdom half a century later.

The Eighteenth Dynasty for that reason opened in the same way as the victory on peak of the invaders by the Thebans. Although the reigns of Amenhotep II (r. 1427–1401/1397 BC) and Thutmose IV (r. 1401/1397–1391/1388 BC) saw considerable royal focus in Memphis, but for the most part, power remained in the south. With the long period of harmony that followed, prosperity another time took sustain of the city, which benefited from her strategic position. Strengthening trade ties with additional empires intended that the port of Peru-nefer (literally means "Bon Voyage") became the gateway to the kingdom for neighbouring regions, including Byblos and the Levant.

In the New Kingdom, Memphis became a centre for the education of royal princes and the sons of the nobility. Amenhotep II, born and raised in Memphis, was made the setem—the tall priest over Lower Egypt—during the reign of his father. His son, Thutmose IV traditional his famed and recorded get-up-and-go whilst residing as a pubertal prince in Memphis. During his exploration of the site, Karl Richard Lepsius identified a series of blocks and damage colonnades in the reveal of Thutmose IV to the east of the Temple of Ptah. They had to associate a royal building, most likely a ceremonial palace.

The founding of the temple of Astarte (Mespotamian or Assyrian goddess of fertility and war; Babylonian = Ishtar), which Herodotus syncretically understands is dedicated to the Greek goddess Aphrodite, also may be archaic to the Eighteenth Dynasty, specifically the reign of Amenhotep III (r. 1388/86–1351/1349 BC). The greatest play a part of this king in Memphis, however, was a temple called "Nebmaatra associated with Ptah", which is cited by many sources from the get older of his reign, including artefacts listing the works of Huy, the High Steward of Memphis. The location of this temple has not been precisely determined, but a number of its beige quartzite blocks were found to have been reused by Ramesses II (r. 1279–1213 BC) for the construction of the small temple of Ptah. This leads some Egyptologists to suggest that the latter temple had been built higher than the site of the first.

According to inscriptions found in Memphis, Akhenaten (r. 1353/51–1336/34 BC; formerly Amenhotep IV) founded a temple of Aten in the city. The burial chamber of one of the priests of this cult has been outdoor at Saqqara. His successor Tutankhamun (r. 1332–1323 BC; formerly Tutankhaten) relocated the royal court from Akhenaten's capital Akhetaten ("Horizon of the Aten") to Memphis back the grow less of the second year of his reign. Whilst in Memphis, Tutankhamun initiated a period of restoration of the temples and traditions following the period of Atenism, which became regarded as heresy.

The tombs of important officials from his reign, such as Horemheb and Maya, are situated in Saqqara, although Horemheb was buried in the Valley of the Kings after reigning as king himself (r. 1319–1292 BC). He had been commander of the army below Tutankhamun and Ay. Maya was superintendent of the treasury during the reigns of Tutankhamun, Ay, and Horemheb. Ay had been Tutankhamun's chief minister, and succeeded him as king (r. 1323–1319 BC). To consolidate his capability he married Tutankhamun's widow Ankhesenamun, the third of the six daughters of Akhenaten and Nefertiti. Her fate is unknown. Similarly, Horemheb consolidated capacity when he married Nefertiti's sister Mutnodjemet.

There is evidence that, under Ramesses II, the city developed supplementary importance in the embassy sphere through its proximity to the supplementary capital Pi-Ramesses. The king devoted many monuments in Memphis and adorned them as soon as colossal symbols of glory. Merneptah (r. 1213–1203 BC), his successor, constructed a palace and developed the southeast wall of the temple of Ptah. For the in the future part of the 19th Dynasty, Memphis normal the privileges of royal attention, and it is this dynasty that is most evident among the ruins of the city today.

With the Twenty-first and Twenty-second Dynasties, there is a continuation of the religious expansion initiated by Ramesses. Memphis does not seem to have suffered a halt during the Third Intermediate Period, which saw great changes in the geopolitics of the country. Instead it is likely that the kings worked to develop the Memphite cult in their new capital of Tanis, to the northeast. In fresh of some remains found at the site, it is known that a temple of Ptah was based there. Siamun is cited as having built a temple dedicated to Amun, the remains of which were found by Flinders Petrie in the to come twentieth century, in the south of the temple of Ptah complex.

According to inscriptions describing his architectural work, Sheshonk I (r. 943–922 BC), founder of the Twenty-second Dynasty, constructed a forecourt and pylon of the temple of Ptah, a monument that he named the "Castle of Millions of Years of Sheshonk, Beloved of Amun". The funerary cult surrounding this monument, well known in the New Kingdom, was nevertheless functioning several generations after its introduction at the temple, leading some scholars to suggest that it may have contained the royal burial chamber of the king. Sheshonk with ordered the building of a other shrine for the god Apis, especially devoted to funeral ceremonies in which the bull was led to his death before being ritually mummified.

A necropolis for the tall priests of Memphis dating precisely from the Twenty-second Dynasty has been found west of the forum. It included a chapel dedicated to Ptah by a prince Shoshenq, son of Osorkon II (r. 872–837 BC), whose tomb was found in Saqqara in 1939 by Pierre Montet. The chapel is currently visible in the gardens of the Egyptian Museum in Cairo, behind a trio of colossi of Ramesses II, which are furthermore from Memphis.

During the Third Intermediate Period and the Late Period, Memphis is often the scene of liberation struggles of the local dynasties next to an occupying force, such as the Kushites, Assyrians, and Persians. The triumphant disquiet of Piankhi, ruler of the Kushites, saw the launch of the Twenty-fifth Dynasty, whose chair of talent was in Napata. Piankhi's conquest of Egypt was recorded on the Victory Stele at the Temple of Amun in Gebel Barkal. Following the take over of Memphis, he restored the temples and cults neglected during the reign of the Libyans. His successors are known for building chapels in the southwest corner of the temple of Ptah.

Memphis was at the heart of the turmoil produced by the great Assyrian threat. Under Taharqa, the city formed the frontier base of the resistance, which soon crumbled as the Kushite king was driven help into Nubia. The Assyrian king Esarhaddon, supported by some of the native Egyptian princes, captured Memphis in 671 BC. His forces sacked and raided the city, slaughtered villagers, and erected piles of their heads. Esarhaddon returned to his capital Nineveh with wealthy booty, and erected a victory stele showing the son of Taharqa in chains. Almost considering the king left, Egypt rebelled adjoining Assyrian rule.

In Assyria, Ashurbanipal succeeded his father and resumed the terrible against Egypt. In a massive offensive in 664 BC, the city of Memphis was another time sacked and looted, and the king Tantamani was pursued into Nubia and defeated, putting a definitive stop to the Kushite reign greater than Egypt. Power then returned to the Saite kings, who, fearful of an injury from the Babylonians, reconstructed and even fortified structures in the city, as is attested by the palace built by Apries at Kom Tuman.

Egypt and Memphis were taken for Persia by king Cambyses in 525 BC after the Battle of Pelusium. Under the Persians, structures in the city were preserved and strengthened, and Memphis was made the administrative headquarters of the newly conquered satrapy. A Persian garrison was all the time installed within the city, probably in the good north wall, near the domineering palace of Apries. The excavations by Flinders Petrie revealed that this sector included armouries. For as regards a century and a half, the city remained the capital of the Persian satrapy of Egypt ("Mudraya"/"Musraya"), officially becoming one of the epicentres of commerce in the huge territory conquered by the Achaemenid monarchy.

The stelae dedicated to Apis in the Serapeum at Saqqara, commissioned by the reigning monarch, represent a key element in treaty the activities of this period. As in the Late Period, the catacombs in which the remains of the sacred bulls were buried gradually grew in size, and cutting edge took upon a monumental expose that confirms the addition of the cult's hypostases throughout the country, and particularly in Memphis and its necropolis. Thus, a monument dedicated by Cambyses II seems to refute the testimony of Herodotus, who lends the conquerors a criminal attitude of disrespect adjoining the sacred traditions.

The nationalist awakening came as soon as the rise to power, however briefly, of Amyrtaeus in 404 BC, who curtains the Persian occupation. He was defeated and executed at Memphis in October 399 BC by Nepherites I, founder of the Twenty-ninth Dynasty. The expertise was recorded in an Aramaic papyrus document (Papyrus Brooklyn 13). Nepherites moved the capital to Mendes, in the eastern delta, and Memphis purposeless its status in the political sphere. It retained, however, its religious, commercial, and strategic importance, and was instrumental in resisting Persian attempts to reconquer Egypt.

Under Nectanebo I, a major rebuilding program was initiated for temples across the country. In Memphis, a powerful supplementary wall was rebuilt for the Temple of Ptah, and developments were made to temples and chapels inside the complex. Nectanebo II meanwhile, while continuing the exploit of his predecessor, began building large sanctuaries, especially in the necropolis of Saqqara, adorning them in the same way as pylons, statues, and paved roads lined like rows of sphinxes. Despite his efforts to prevent the recovery of the country by the Persians, he succumbed to an violent behavior in 340 BC. Nectanebo II retreated south to Memphis, to which the Achaemenid king Artaxerxes III laid siege, forcing the king to make off to Upper Egypt, and eventually to Nubia.

A brief liberation of the city below the rebel-king Khababash (338 to 335 BC) is evinced by an Apis bull sarcophagus bearing his name, which was discovered at Saqqara dating from his second year. The armies of Darius III eventually regained rule of the city.

Memphis below the Late Period saying recurring invasions followed by successive liberations. Several period besieged, it was the scene of several of the bloodiest battles in the archives of the country. Despite the maintain of their Greek allies in undermining the hegemony of the Achaemenids, the country still fell into the hands of the conquerors, and Memphis was never another time to become the nation's capital. In 332 BC came the Greeks, who took direct of the country from the Persians, and Egypt would never see a new indigenous ruler inherit the throne until the Egyptian Revolution of 1952.

In 332 BC, Alexander the Great was crowned king in the Temple of Ptah, ushering in the Hellenistic period. The city retained a significant status, especially religious, throughout the period in the space of the appropriation by one of his generals, Ptolemy I. On the death of Alexander in Babylon (323 BCE), Ptolemy took good pains in acquiring his body and bringing it to Memphis. Claiming that the king had officially expressed a desire to be buried in Egypt, he later carried the body of Alexander to the heart of the temple of Ptah, and had him embalmed by the priests. By custom, kings in Macedon asserted their right to the throne by burying their predecessor. Ptolemy II later transferred the sarcophagus to Alexandria, where a royal tomb was constructed for its burial. The true location of the tomb has been drifting since then. According to Aelian, the seer Aristander foretold that the estate where Alexander was laid to rest "would be glad and unvanquishable forever".

Thus began the Ptolemaic dynasty, during which began the city's gradual decline. It was Ptolemy I who first introduced the cult of Serapis in Egypt, establishing his cult in Saqqara. From this become old date many developments of the Saqqara Serapeum, including the building of the Chamber of Poets, as well as the dromos adorning the temple, and many elements of Greek-inspired architecture. The cult's reputation lengthy beyond the borders of the country, but was unconventional eclipsed by the good Alexandrian Serapeum, built in Ptolemy's honour by his successors.

The Decrees of Memphis were issued in 216 and 196 BC, by Ptolemy IV and Ptolemy V respectively. Delegates from the principal clergies of the kingdom gathered in synod, under the patronage of the High Priest of Ptah and in the presence of the king, to establish the religious policy of the country for years to come, also dictating fees and taxes, creating extra foundations, and paying honor to the Ptolemaic rulers. These decrees were engraved on stelae in three scripts to be approach and understood by all: Demotic, hieroglyphic, and Greek. The most famous of these stelae is the Rosetta Stone, which allowed the deciphering of ancient Egyptian script in the nineteenth century. There were further stelae, funerary this time, discovered upon the site that have forwarded knowledge of the genealogy of the complex clergy of Memphis, a dynasty of high priests of Ptah. The heritage retained strong ties in the appearance of the royal associates in Alexandria, to the extent that marriages occurred between sure high priests and Ptolemaic princesses, strengthening even new the duty between the two families.

With the beginning of the Romans, Memphis, like Thebes, lost its place for eternity in favour of Alexandria, which opened onto the empire. The rise of the cult of Serapis, a syncretic deity most suited to the mentality of the new rulers of Egypt, and the emergence of Christianity taking root deep into the country, spelled the complete ruin of the ancient cults of Memphis.

During the Byzantine and Coptic periods the city gradually dwindled and finally dropped out of existence. It subsequently became a quarry from which its stones were used to build new settlements nearby, including Fustat, the further capital founded by the Arabs who took possession in the seventh century AD. The foundations of Fustat and future Cairo, both built farther north, were laid subsequent to stones of dismantled temples and ancient necropoleis of Memphis. In the thirteenth century, the Arab chronicler Abd-ul-Latif, upon visiting the site, described and gave testimony to the grandeur of the ruins.

Although the remains today are nothing compared to what was witnessed by the Arab historian, his testimony has inspired the accomplishment of many archaeologists. The first surveys and excavations of the nineteenth century, and the extensive work of Flinders Petrie, have been skillful to work a little of the former glory of the ancient capital. Memphis and its necropolis, which count up funerary stone tombs, mastabas, temples, and pyramids, were inscribed upon the World Heritage List of UNESCO in 1979.

During the get older of the New Kingdom, and especially below the reign of the rulers of the Nineteenth Dynasty, Memphis flourished in power and size, rivalling Thebes both politically and architecturally. An indicator of this evolve can be found in a chapel of Seti I dedicated to the adulation of Ptah. After over a century of excavations on the site, archaeologists have gradually been able to verify the layout and momentum of the ancient city.

The Hout-ka-Ptah, dedicated to the love of the creator god Ptah, was the largest and most important temple in ancient Memphis. It was one of the most prominent structures in the city, occupying a large precinct within the city's centre. Enriched by centuries of veneration, the temple was one of the three foremost places of worship in Ancient Egypt, the others subconscious the good temples of Ra in Heliopolis, and of Amun in Thebes.

Much of what is known today just about the ancient temple comes from the writings of Herodotus, who visited the site at the mature of the first Persian invasion, long after the fall of the New Kingdom. Herodotus claimed that the temple had been founded by Menes, and that the core building of the complex was restricted to priests and kings. His account, however, gives no physical version of the complex. Archaeological play a part undertaken in the last century has gradually unearthed the temple's ruins, revealing a huge walled combination accessible by several monumental gates located along the southern, western, and eastern walls.

The remains of the good temple and its premises are displayed as an open-air museum near the good colossus of Rameses II, which originally marked the southern axis of the temple. Also in this sector is a large sphinx monolith, discovered in the nineteenth century. It dates from the Eighteenth Dynasty, most likely having been carved during the reign of either Amenhotep II or Thutmose IV. It is one of the finest examples of this nice statuary yet present upon its indigenous site. The outside museum houses numerous new statues, colossi, sphinxes, and architectural elements. However, the majority of the finds have been sold to major museums something like the world. For the most part, these can be found on display in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo.

The specific publicize of the temple is unclear at present, and lonely that of the main entry to the perimeter are known. Recent developments put in the discovery of giant statues that adorned the gates or towers. Those that have been found date from the reign of Ramsses II. This king in addition to built at least three shrines within the temple compound, where high regard is joined with those deities to whom they were dedicated.

This little temple, adjoining the southwest corner of the larger Temple of Ptah, was dedicated to the deified Rameses II, along similar to the three come clean deities: Horus, Ptah and Amun. It is known in full as the Temple of Ptah of Rameses, Beloved of Amun, God, Ruler of Heliopolis.

Its ruins were discovered in 1942 by archaeologist Ahmed Badawy and were excavated in 1955 by Rudolf Anthes. The excavations uncovered a religious building final with a tower, a courtyard for ritual offerings, a portico gone columns followed by a pillared hall and a tripartite sanctuary, all enclosed in walls built of mudbricks. Its most recent exterior has been out of date from the New Kingdom era.

The temple opened to the east toward a pathway paved with further religious buildings. The archaeological explorations that took place here make public that the southern allocation of the city indeed contain a large number of religious buildings next a particular obedience to the god Ptah, the principal deity of Memphis.

Located farther east, and near to the great colossus of Rameses, this small temple is certified to the nineteenth dynasty, and seems to have been dedicated to Ptah and his divine consort Sekhmet, as skillfully as deified Rameses II. Its ruins are not so without difficulty preserved as others nearby, as its limestone foundations appear to have been quarried after the renunciation of the city in late antiquity.

Two giant statues, dating from the Middle Kingdom, originally adorned the building's facade, which opened to the west. They were moved inside the Museum of Memphis, and depicted the king standing in the attitude of the march, wearing the Hedjet, the white crown of Upper Egypt.

In the southeast of the Great Temple complex, the king Merneptah of the Nineteenth Dynasty founded a further shrine in honour of the chief deity of the city, Ptah. This temple was discovered in the prematurely twentieth century by Flinders Petrie, who identified it as a depiction of the Greek god Proteus cited by Herodotus.

The site was excavated during the First World War by Clarence Stanley Fisher. Excavations began in the anterior part, which is formed by a large courtyard of nearly 15 sq metres, opening on the south by a large approach with reliefs supplying the names of the king and the epithets of Ptah. Only this allocation of the temple has been unearthed; the remainder of the chamber has yet to be explored a little farther north. During the excavations, archaeologists unearthed the first traces of an edifice built of mudbrick, which quickly proved to be a large ceremonial palace built next to the temple proper. Some of the key elements of the stone temple were donated by Egypt to the museum at the University of Pennsylvania, which financed the expedition, while the supplementary remained at the Egyptian Museum in Cairo.

The temple remained in use throughout the dismount of the New Kingdom, as evidenced by enrolment surges during the reigns of progressive kings. Thereafter, however, it was gradually deserted and converted for supplementary uses by civilians. Gradually buried by the upheaval of the city, the stratigraphic assay of the site shows that by the Late Period it was already in ruins and is soon covered by supplementary buildings.

This little temple of Hathor was unearthed south of the great wall of the Hout-Ka-Ptah by Abdullah al-Sayed Mahmud in the 1970s and furthermore dates from the get older of Rameses II. Dedicated to the goddess Hathor, Lady of the Sycamore, it presents an architecture thesame to the little temple-shrines known especially to Karnak. From its proportions, it does not seem to be a major shrine of the goddess, but is currently the on your own building dedicated to her discovered in the city's ruins.

It is believed that this shrine was primarily used for processional purposes during major religious festivals. A larger temple dedicated to Hathor, indeed one of the foremost shrines of the goddess in the country, is thought to have existed elsewhere in the city, but to date has not been discovered. A depression, similar to that found near the great temple of Ptah, could indicate its location. Archaeologists resign yourself to that it could house the remains of an enclosure and a large monument, a theory attested by ancient sources.

The temple of the goddess Neith was said to have been located to the north of the temple of Ptah. It has not been discovered to date.

Memphis is believed to have housed a number of other temples dedicated to deities who accompanied Ptah. Some of these sanctuaries are attested by ancient hieroglyphs, but have not still been found among the ruins of the city. Surveys and excavations are nevertheless continuing at comprehensible Mit Rahina, and will likely build up to the knowledge of the planning of the ancient religious city.

A temple dedicated to Mithras, dated from the Roman period, has been outside in the grounds north of Memphis. The temple of Astarte, described by Herodotus, was located in the area reserved to the Phoenicians during the time in imitation of the Greek author visited the city, but has not been discovered to date.

A temple dedicated to the goddess Sekhmet, consort of Ptah, has not nevertheless been found, but is currently attributed by Egyptian sources. Archaeologists are yet searching for remains. It may be located within the precinct of the Hout-ka-Ptah, as would seem to recommend several discoveries made in the course of the ruins of the profound in the late nineteenth century, including a block of stone evoking the "great door" with the epithet of the goddess, and a column bearing an inscription upon behalf of Rameses II declaring him "beloved of Sekhmet". It has in addition to been demonstrated through the Great Harris Papyrus, which states that a statue of the goddess was made alongside those of Ptah and their son, the god Nefertem, during the reign of Rameses III, and that it was commissioned for the deities of Memphis at the heart of the great temple.

The Temple of Apis in Memphis was the main temple dedicated to the respect of the bull Apis, considered to be a blooming manifestation of Ptah. It is detailed taking place of classical historians such as Herodotus, Diodorus, and Strabo, but its location has nevertheless to be discovered amidst the ruins of the ancient capital. According to Herodotus, who described the temple's courtyard as a peristyle of columns as soon as giant statues, it was built during the reign of Psamtik I. The Greek historian Strabo visited the site as soon as the conquering Roman troops, following the victory against Cleopatra in the Battle of Actium. He details that the temple consisted of two chambers, one for the bull and the supplementary for his mother, and all was built close the temple of Ptah. At the temple, Apis was used as an oracle, his movements subconscious interpreted as prophecies. His breath was believed to cure disease, and his presence to bless those in description to with virility. He was unadulterated a window in the temple through which he could be seen, and on clear holidays was led through the streets of the city, bedecked past jewellery and flowers.

In 1941, the archaeologist Ahmed Badawy discovered the first remains in Memphis that depicted the god Apis. The site, located within the grounds of the good temple of Ptah, was revealed to be a mortuary chamber designed exclusively for the embalming of the sacred bull. A stele found at Saqqara shows that Nectanebo II had ordered the restoration of this building, and elements outdated from the Thirtieth Dynasty have been unearthed in the northern part of the chamber, confirming the era of reconstruction in this allocation of the temple. It is likely that the mortuary was allowance of the larger temple of Apis cited by ancient sources. This sacred allocation of the temple would be the only allowance that has survived, and would insist the words of Strabo and Diodorus, both of whom acknowledged that the temple was located near the temple of Ptah.

The majority of known Apis statues come from the burial chambers known as Serapeum, located to the northwest at Saqqara. The most ancient burials found at this site date assist to the reign of Amenhotep III.

During the Twenty-first Dynasty, a shrine of the good god Amun was built by Siamun to the south of the temple of Ptah. This temple (or temples) was maybe dedicated to the Theban Triad, consisting of Amun, his consort Mut, and their son Khonsu. It was the Upper Egyptian counterpart of the Memphis Triad (Ptah, Sekhmet, and Nefertem).

A temple dedicated to Aten in Memphis is attested by hieroglyphs found within the tombs of Memphite dignitaries of the fall of the Eighteenth Dynasty, uncovered at Saqqara. Among them, that of Tutankhamun, who began his career under the reign of his father, Akhenaten, as a "steward of the temple of Aten in Memphis".

Since the ahead of time excavations at Memphis in the late nineteenth and ahead of time twentieth centuries, artefacts have been outside in every other parts of the city that indicate the presence of a building dedicated to the veneration of the sun disc, The Aten. The location of such a building is lost, and various hypotheses have been made upon this subject based on the place of discovery of the remains of the Amarna Period features.

The ruins of ancient Memphis have yielded a large number of sculptures representing Rameses II.
Within the museum in Memphis is a giant statue of him carved of monumental limestone, about 10 metres in length. It was discovered in 1820 near the southern admittance of the temple of Ptah by Italian archaeologist Giovanni Caviglia. Because the base and feet of the sculpture are broken off from the on fire of the body, it is currently displayed lying upon its back. Some of the colours are nevertheless partially preserved, but the beauty of this statue lies in its flawless detail of the rarefied and subtle forms of human anatomy. The king wears the white crown of Upper Egypt, Hedjet.

Caviglia offered to send the statue to Grand Duke of Tuscany, Leopold II, through the intercession of Ippolito Rosellini. Rosellini advised the sovereign of the unpleasant expenses in force with transportation, and considered as vital the prickly of the colossus into pieces. The Wāli and self-declared Khedive of Egypt and Sudan, Muhammad Ali Pasha, offered to donate it to the British Museum, but the museum declined the have the funds for because of the difficult task of shipping the huge statue to London. It as a result remained in the archaeological Place of Memphis in the museum built to guard it.

The colossus was one of a pair that historically adorned the eastern read to the temple of Ptah. The other, found in the thesame year as well as by Caviglia, was restored in the 1950s to its full standing peak of 11 metres. It was first displayed in the Bab Al-Hadid square in Cairo, which was in imitation of renamed Ramses Square. Deemed an improper location, it was moved in 2006 to a temporary location in Giza, where it underwent restoration since being installed at the get into of the Grand Egyptian Museum in January 2018. A replica of the statues stands in a suburb of Cairo, Heliopolis.

Because of its antiquity and its large population, Memphis had several necropoleis forward movement along the valley, including the most famous, Saqqara. In addition, the urban Place consisted of cemeteries that were build up to the west of the great temple. The sanctity of these places inevitably attracted the devout and the faithful, who sought either to make an offering to Osiris, or to bury another.

The part of the city called Ankh-tawy was already included in the Middle Kingdom necropolis. Expansions of the western sector of the temple of Ptah were ordered by the kings of the Twenty-second Dynasty, seeking to revive the considering glory of the Ramesside age. Within this allocation of the site was founded a necropolis of the high priests.

According to sources, the site as well as included a chapel or an oratory to the goddess Bastet, which seems consistent taking into account the presence of monuments of rulers of the dynasty considering the cult of Bubastis. Also in this Place were the mortuary temples devoted by various New Kingdom kings, whose statute is paralleled by Egyptologists to that played by the Temples of a Million years of the Theban kings.

Memphis was the seat of skill for the kings of on height of eight dynasties. According to Manetho, the first royal palace was founded by Hor-Aha, the successor of Narmer, the founder of the 1st Dynasty. He built a fortress in Memphis of white walls. Egyptian sources tell of the palaces of the Old Kingdom rulers, some of which were built underneath major royal pyramids. They were gigantic in size, and were embellished in the freshen of parks and lakes. In complement to the palaces described below, other sources indicate the existence of a palace founded in the city by Thutmose I, which was still operating under the reign of Tuthmosis IV.

According to credited texts of his reign, Merneptah ordered the building of a large walled enclosure housing a extra temple and an against palace. Later Apries, had a palatial complex build up at Kom Tuman upon a promontory overlooking the city. It was share of a series of structures built within the temple precinct in the Late Period, and contained a royal palace, a fortress, barracks, and armouries. Flinders Petrie excavated the area and found considerable signs of military activity.

The centrally located palaces and temples were surrounded by exchange districts of the city, in which were many craftsmen's workshops, arsenals, and dockyards. Also were residential neighbourhoods, some of which were inhabited primarily by foreigners—first Hittites and Phoenicians, later Persians, and finally Greeks. The city was indeed located at the crossroads of trade routes and consequently attracted goods imported from diverse regions of the Mediterranean.

Ancient texts uphold that citywide progress took place regularly. Furthermore, there is evidence that the Nile has shifted more than the centuries to the east, leaving additional lands to fill in the eastern portion of the archaic capital. This Place of the city was dominated by the large eastern read of the temple of Ptah.

The site of Memphis has been famous since ancient era and is cited in many ancient sources, including both Egyptian and foreign. Diplomatic chronicles found on different sites have detailed the correspondence with the city and the various contemporary empires in the Mediterranean, Ancient Near East, and Africa. These swell for example the Amarna letters, which detail trade conducted by Memphis like the sovereigns of Babylon and the various city-states of Lebanon. The proclamations of the vanguard Assyrian kings cite Memphis among its list of conquests.

Beginning once the second half of the first millennium BC, the city was detailed more and more very in the words of ancient historians, especially past the spread of trade ties taking into account Greece. The descriptions of the city by travellers who followed the traders in the discovery of Egypt have proved instrumental in reconstructing an image of the glorious taking into account of the ancient capital. Among the main classical authors are:

Subsequently, the city is often cited by further Latin or Greek authors, in rare cases providing an overall savings account of the city or detailing its cults, as realize Suetonius and Ammianus Marcellinus, who pay particular attention to the city's worship of Apis.

The city was plunged into oblivion during the Christian era that followed. Few sources are genial to attest to the city's goings-on during its unmovable stages.

It was not until the conquest of the country by the Arabs that a tally of the city reappears, by which era it was in ruins. Among the major sources from this time:

In 1652 during his trip to Egypt, Jean de Thévenot identified the location of the site and its ruins, confirming the accounts of the antiquated Arab authors for Europeans. His relation is brief, but represents the first step toward the exploration that will emerge after the move forward of archaeology. The starting dwindling of archaeological exploration in Memphis was Napoléon Bonaparte's great foray into Egypt in 1798. Research and surveys of the site avowed the identification of Thévenot, and the first studies of its remains were carried out by scientists accompanying French soldiers. The results of the first scientific studies were published in the monumental Description de l'Égypte, a map of the region, the first to have enough money the location of Memphis later precision.

The to the lead French expeditions paved the exaggeration for explorations of a deeper scope that would follow from the nineteenth century until today, conducted by leading explorers, Egyptologists, and major archaeological institutions. Here is a partial list:

During the British become old in Egypt, the improve of agricultural technology along like the systematic cultivation of the Nile floodplains led to a considerable amount of accidental archaeological discoveries. Much of what was found would fall into the hands of major European collectors travelling the country on behalf of the great museums of London, Paris, Berlin, and Turin. It was during one of these estate cultivations that peasants accidentally discovered elements of a Roman temple of Mithras during 1847 close the village of Mit Rahina. It was probably at this location where eleven statues were found. A review of Les Statues Ptolémaïques du Sarapieion de Memphis noted they were probably built in the third century when limestone and stucco, some standing others sitting. In 1956, Rowe and Rees suggested that this theme was thesame to Plato's Academy mosaic. The statues were ascribed to, Pindar (seated, identified per a graffiti), an inscription at the assist of his seat that reads Dionysi, Demetrius of Phalerum, Orphic, aux oiseaux, Hesiode, Homer seated in the center (head was recovered), Protagoras, Thales, Heraclite, Platon (per inscription), and Aristote.

From 1852 to 1854, Joseph Hekekyan, then operating for the Egyptian government, conducted geological surveys upon the site, and on these occasions made a number of discoveries, such as those at Kom el-Khanzir (northeast of the good temple of Ptah). These stones ornamented with reliefs from the Amarna period, originally from the ancient temple of Aten in Memphis, had on certainly been reused in the foundations of option ruined monument. He then discovered the good colossus of Rameses II in pink granite.

This spate of archaeological discoveries gave birth to the constant risk of seeing whatever these cultural riches leaving behind Egyptian soil. Auguste-Édouard Mariette, who visited Saqqara in 1850, became up to date of the need to create an institution in Egypt responsible for the exploration and conservation of the country's archaeological treasures. He standard the Egyptian Antiquities Organisation (EAO) in 1859, and organised excavations at Memphis that revealed the first evidence of the good temple of Ptah, and uncovered the royal statues of the Old Kingdom.

The out of date published papyri Greek Magical Papyri, may have originated from the region.

The major excavations of the British Egyptologist Sir William Matthew Flinders Petrie, conducted from 1907 to 1912, uncovered the majority of the ruins as seen today. Major discoveries upon the site during these excavations included the pillared hall of the temple of Ptah, the pylon of Rameses II, the great alabaster sphinx, and the good wall north of the palace of Apries. He also discovered the remains of the Temple of Amun of Siamon, and the Temple of Ptah of Merneptah. His acquit yourself was interrupted during the First World War, and would higher be taken happening by extra archaeologists, gradually uncovering some of the forgotten monuments of the ancient capital.

A timeline listing the main findings:

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 ADA Compliance in Somerville, TN

ADA Compliance For the Masses

ADA compliance is short for the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). But technically, ADA Compliance refers to the modification of the architectural or structural elements of buildings and facilities designed for persons with handicaps. Although ADA compliant activities may include changes to a facility's exterior, many businesses and organizations prefer to focus their ADA compliance efforts on the inside of the facility. In other words, ADA compliant activities usually mean alterations to the interior of the facility, rather than the exterior. But ADA compliance really means much more than simply making changes or adjustments to make a facility more accessible.

ADA compliance is actually a legal requirement for almost all U.S. residents and visitors who are not otherwise prohibited from entering or remaining within a public accommodation. In order to meet this legal requirement, most organizations and businesses now have well developed procedures on how to make changes in their facilities without running afoul of ADA regulations. In fact, a large number of companies now have ADA compliance programs or policies as part of their general public accommodation planning and policy development. These specialized policies provide general guidelines on how to ensure that the various services and amenities provided by a public accommodation are made easily accessible to all individuals who might be disabled.

A great deal of emphasis has been placed on ADA compliance in the last decade because of the increasing presence of individuals with disabilities in the workforce. According to the American Psychological Association, disability impacts nearly one in five American adults, and almost half of these adults are women. Individuals with disabilities often face unemployment and a variety of barriers to gain employment. Therefore, it is not surprising that disability-based ADA compliance is an important part of every business's or organization's public accommodation planning and policy development.

Businesses and organizations have developed ADA compliant website content in a variety of fields, such as advertising, communications, employee relations, financial services, healthcare, hospitality, legal, marketing, and technology. In each of these fields, a variety of websites are available for ADA compliant portal access. Some of the most popular websites for ADA compliance include: The White House ADA Website, which provides a plethora of information on the federal government's ADA website; The U.S. Department of Education's Office of Fair Housing and equal opportunity policies, which provides extensive information on housing law regarding accessibility for disabled individuals; The Centers for Medicare Services' Medicare Accessibility Center, which provides accessible home page information on various Medicare issues pertaining to the law. Several state governments provide similar ADA compliant websites, as well. Most business organizations retain local ADA office staff to provide ADA assistance at meetings and seminars. You may also contact local government agencies to find out what ADA compliance requirements apply to your particular area.

In addition to creating ADA compliant websites, organizations and businesses must also take additional steps to become more accessible to individuals with disabilities. ADA Compliance Kit is a series of thirteen kits, which include comprehensive guidebooks and pamphlets that explain the legal standards governing ADA compliance. These documents provide detailed descriptions of the various types of accommodations that are required to make people with various types of disabilities able to become wheelchair accessible or use devices like walkers or scooters. Individuals who are interested in obtaining ADA training should also check their local government offices to see if they require any training or other assistance to achieve ADA compliance.

The guidelines describe the format of the Kit and give details on the accessibility of web content and other written materials. The Web Content Accessibility Guidelines outline four steps that should be followed to ensure ADA compliance. Once these four steps have been completed, individuals and businesses can apply for ADA approval.

In order to successfully complete the application process, it is necessary to obtain a letter of authorization from an individual with a disability. Individuals and businesses should not attempt to complete the application without the proper forms. A copy of the letter of authorization is then included on the ADA compliant website. To make websites more accessible for people with disabilities, many companies also make their website content accessible by using Braille fonts instead of full color. Braille text makes websites easy to read for most people. Using this option helps individuals who cannot see print to easily access websites.

ADA compliance requires organizations to take action. Without ADA compliance, individuals with disabilities will not be able to fully participate in American society. ADA compliance can be achieved by contacting the local government agencies and by ensuring that all regulations are met. Individuals who need assistance with getting ready for ADA compliance should also check the government's ADA website. Websites of state and local government agencies are also great sources for information on ADA compliance and tips for achieving ADA compliance.

 Asphalt Milling in Somerville, TN

What is Asphalt Milling?

Asphalt Milling is the process of removing some of the top layer of paved areas. It is a cost-effective method for improving a wide range of surfaces, including roads, parking lots, bridges, and even parking garages. The process can also be used to create a new asphalt surface by adding layers of color to existing pavement. Here's a quick overview of the process. To learn more, contact an expert today.


When it comes to maintaining roads, planning and asphalt milling are important steps in the maintenance process. Planning asphalt milling can eliminate large areas of uneven surface that can lead to rutting, shoving, and washboard texture. These imperfections affect ride quality, extra wear on vehicles, and can even be the cause of a vehicle accident. The process is completely recyclable and will result in a smoother surface. The materials excavated will either be used for a new pavement project on-site or for processing.

Cold planning involves controlled removal of the top layer of pavement, and the process removes deteriorated, aged, cracked, or otherwise unsatisfactory pavement. Modern cold planers feature replaceable tungsten carbide cutting teeth and a large diameter rotary drum. These tools are also equipped with an automatic grade control system to maintain a precise grade throughout the entire process. Once the process is complete, the recycled asphalt is removed from the site and loaded onto a truck for recycling.


With its tighter tooth spacing, a fine-milling asphalt drum can be installed on a road machine with minimal depth to the road surface. This method is required to install thin HMA overlays, which can stretch maintenance budgets. But fine milling is not just about overlays. In addition to addressing other road-repair concerns, fine-milling can also help improve the appearance of roads. Here are three reasons why fine-milling is useful.

The process is used to repair cracks and potholes, and even fix foundational damages. It also eliminates deteriorating surface layers. During the process, excess asphalt is collected and used for other restoration processes. These are referred to as Recyclable Asphalt Pavement (RAP).

Reclaimed Asphalt

Reclaimed asphalt milling is a method of recycling existing asphalt pavements. This type of recycled material is used for roads and parking lots. In many cases, reclaimed asphalt is more environmentally friendly than virgin asphalt, and it can have a higher lifespan. Reclaimed asphalt is also called tarmac or recycled asphalt. Reclaimed asphalt is made from old pavement and is often more durable than virgin asphalt. The Bagela recycler hot mix performs just as well as virgin asphalt.

The unit weight of processed RAP varies, and it depends on the type of aggregates used in reclaimed pavement. The moisture content of stockpiled material has a significant impact on the milling unit weight. Although limited data is available, the average unit weight of milled RAP is 120 to 140 lb/ft3, slightly less than that of natural aggregates. Therefore, the cost of milling RAP is significantly lower than that of crushed material.

 Asphalt Overlay in Somerville, TN

What Are the Benefits of Asphalt Resurfacing and Overlay Services? Ultimately, you'll be happy with the finished result, but what's the right approach for your situation?

What Are the Benefits of Asphalt Resurfacing And Overlay Services?

Let's look at cost, time, and preparation. Read on to learn more about repaving your driveway or parking lot. And then, contact a professional company to get the job done right! And don't forget to compare costs and labor times, too!


Asphalt resurfacing and overlay services are typically less expensive than a full reconstruction of the surface. Typically, the new layer sits one and a half to two inches above the existing concrete. Overlays are also a cheaper alternative to complete reconstruction, and they typically deliver the same level of quality. However, the cost of these services will depend on the type of asphalt you choose. Below are some of the factors to consider.


If your driveway is looking a little tired, it may be time to get an asphalt overlay or resurfacing service. Asphalt overlays are a relatively inexpensive method to fix surface damage. These services apply a new layer of asphalt over the old one, and the old surface serves as a foundation for the new asphalt. Because an overlay is less expensive than a full reconstruction, it may be a better choice if your driveway is getting too old or has extensive structural damage.


If you're looking to replace the pavement on your parking lot or highway, you'll want to know how much asphalt resurfacing and overlay services will cost. The cost will depend on a few different factors, including the square footage of the road, depth of repairs, and additional materials. To get a fair estimate, ask the contractors for an estimate for the labor required to resurface or overlay your road.


The preparation for asphalt resurfacing and overlay services begins with the removal of failed sections of the roadway. These sections are removed and replaced with a new section, either an asphalt overlay or a slurry resurfacing project. Inspectors determine which areas need resurfacing or replacement and may need surface treatment or a modified seal. This process should be performed systematically. The resulting resurfaced section will be up to one and a half inches higher than the existing concrete.


Using asphalt resurfacing and overlay services is an affordable and effective way to fix the problems on your pavement. Overlays can repair small cracks in your pavement, as well as fix larger ones. They are ideal for repairs of older pavements that have deteriorated. They can also improve the look of your parking lot or driveway. But how can you tell which one is right for you? Here are some tips to determine whether asphalt resurfacing and overlay services are right for you.


Overlays are an inexpensive solution to minor cracks in your asphalt driveway. However, they should only be used on a limited number of spots, such as minor stains and ruts. Overlays are not recommended for severely damaged asphalt because they may add to your total replacement cost. Instead, choose an asphalt repair company that offers a comprehensive range of resurfacing options. Listed below are the common problems associated with overlays.

 Asphalt Patching in Somerville, TN

Asphalt Patching is an efficient method used for repairing small sections of asphalt pavement by replace the damaged material with new asphalt only to restore its full structural strength without requiring repaving or resurfacing. This process also reduces the required amount of paving necessary and the associated costs, while increasing the durability of the pavement. This is beneficial to business owners, who may have limited budgets. It is also beneficial to local communities because it increases safety for everyone who walks or drives on the paved road.

Asphalt Patching - Keep Your Garage Looking Great and Save Money

A wide range of materials are used in asphalt patching, such as asphalt and concrete, which have different advantages over synthetic interlocking pavement mixes. Asphalt is typically the chosen material because it is the most commonly used for industrial applications, including industrial, commercial, and residential streets. Concrete, on the other hand, is used in residential neighborhoods and is relatively cheaper than asphalt. When deciding upon what material should be used, it is important that you contact an experienced asphalt paving contractor who can advise you about your particular needs. To learn more about asphalt patching, contact a paving contractor in your area today.

Most asphalt patches replace one or both of the damaged pavement panels. Depending on the severity of the damage, the repaired area may include a medallion or curb accent, which are designed to visually define the repaired section of pavement. A small curb accent, which is typically made of steel or aluminum, is typically added to the end of the repaired section of pavement to visually soften the contrast between the adjacent roadway and the adjacent sidewalk or curb. The amount of curb accent required will depend upon the severity of the damage and the length of time it will take for the repair to be completed.

Not all asphalt paving requires the replacement of damaged panels. In some cases, the damaged asphalt pavement simply needs to be repaired with a different style of asphalt. When a repair becomes necessary, contact an experienced asphalt paving contractor to find out what kind of materials are available and how much each cost. In many cases, the repair is usually cost-effective when compared to ripping up and replacing the panels. If the repair involves new asphalt, make sure to choose a company that uses high quality, fully patched asphalt that is manufactured by a reputable provider.

Another type of asphalt paving project involves leveling. In some cases, the problem is not a flat spot; sometimes it is a uneven surface. Regardless of the situation, most asphalt pavements require some leveling before they're ready for use. Because it costs so much to rip up and replace asphalt pavements, most property owners avoid tearing up and replacing their asphalt pavements if at all possible. If the area doesn't need to be leveled completely, repave the area. If the problem lies in the leveling of the paved surface, contact a reputable asphalt paving company to find out what products they recommend for this job.

Parking lots face unique problems that other pavement areas don't. In addition to tearing up and replacing asphalt pavement, parking lots may also need to be repaired or replaced with a variety of materials. The first thing you may want to consider for your asphalt pavement replacement project is the addition of a new parking lot sealer. Parking lot sealants are specially designed for asphalt pavements and provide the additional protection that asphalt parking lots need. Depending on your parking lot and budget, you may be able to simply apply the park sealer yourself using a chemical paint or roller application system.

Asphalt patching can also help in small cracks. Small cracks in asphalt driveways or patches can often be repaired easily and professionally. When dealing with small cracks, always try to work on the problem area right away. If you leave the crack open it will quickly fill with water and expand. This will cause additional damage and possibly even cost you more in the long run. For larger cracks, consult your local contractor to decide if you need to tear up the entire asphalt driveway or if a repair with a patch will suffice.

Asphalt patching should be an easy and affordable option to protect your parking lot. If you have any questions about the process, contact your local contractors. Most will be more than happy to answer your questions and give you the information you need to make an informed decision about your parking lot's maintenance. The cost of repair or replacement should be considered a monthly expense. With proper preventative maintenance your garage will be protected from stains and cracks for many years to come.

 Asphalt Repair and Maintenance in Somerville, TN

Whether you have asphalt and concrete pavement repair needs, there are several things you should consider before making the investment. The process can be very complicated and expensive, if not performed correctly. It is essential to choose the right contractor for your asphalt repair needs.

The first thing to consider is whether or not your asphalt repair is commercial grade. Some asphalt repair businesses are only equipped to handle residential asphalt repairs. This may result in a higher price for your repair project.

Next, you should check out any credentials of the potential contractor. A legitimate asphalt repair company will be required to obtain a business license from the local government. They will also need to pass a background and fire hazard inspection. All employees should be properly trained and insured. These factors alone should give you enough information to determine if the asphalt repair company you are considering has the ability to complete your repair request.

Another important factor to consider when choosing an asphalt repair company is their price. Not all companies are created equal. You may be eligible for discounts and incentives. Before making final decisions on which asphalt repair company you want to hire, ask for cost estimates. If a price is quoted without the customer's permission, you should question why they are quoting that amount. Sometimes companies give quotes without customers' permission in order to get paid quickly for the job.

If you are in the market for asphalt repairs, you may be wondering what type of maintenance you will need to do once the job is complete. Most asphalt repair jobs are fairly simple. Repairs such as potholes should be tackled using asphalt patching materials. For larger defects, such as cracks, water damage, and other issues, it is common for the asphalt repair company to use some type of filler material to repair the problem area. This process can take several days to a week, depending on the severity of the issue.

In most cases, repairing asphalt damages is not only faster than removing them, but also less expensive. The reason for this is because asphalt repairs can be completed with the least amount of materials, as compared to other types of repairs. When it comes to other types of repair, such as for potholes and cracks, it is common to have to remove and replace damaged asphalt, as well as apply additional materials. Not only does this cost more, but also it is possible for problems to become worse before they get better.

In many cases, you may be able to get a refund or credit card offer for the cost of the repair, especially if you were not able to complete the repair on your own. With an asphalt repair company, there is a good chance that you will be able to recoup at least a portion of your investment. This is because most asphalt repair companies charge their clients based on the amount of damage. In the case of damages that are severe enough to require replacement, a company may offer their clients to either pay for the cost of having the asphalt replaced or to have the asphalt repaired so that it can be used again. However, some companies offer their customers the choice of having the damaged asphalt repaired for free, depending on the circumstances.

If you are dealing with asphalt repairs, but the damage is minor, you should be able to fix the problem yourself. There are a number of ways to fix small damage such as potholes and cracks, using sandpaper to smooth out the surface, and filling them with a filler such as dry compound. If the damage is more severe, you may need the help of a professional company. In this case, you should consult with your insurance provider to find out whether or not you can get any financial assistance towards the repair.

 Asphalt Resurfacing in Somerville, TN

What Are the Benefits of Asphalt Resurfacing and Overlay Services? Ultimately, you'll be happy with the finished result, but what's the right approach for your situation?

What Are the Benefits of Asphalt Resurfacing And Overlay Services?

Let's look at cost, time, and preparation. Read on to learn more about repaving your driveway or parking lot. And then, contact a professional company to get the job done right! And don't forget to compare costs and labor times, too!


Asphalt resurfacing and overlay services are typically less expensive than a full reconstruction of the surface. Typically, the new layer sits one and a half to two inches above the existing concrete. Overlays are also a cheaper alternative to complete reconstruction, and they typically deliver the same level of quality. However, the cost of these services will depend on the type of asphalt you choose. Below are some of the factors to consider.


If your driveway is looking a little tired, it may be time to get an asphalt overlay or resurfacing service. Asphalt overlays are a relatively inexpensive method to fix surface damage. These services apply a new layer of asphalt over the old one, and the old surface serves as a foundation for the new asphalt. Because an overlay is less expensive than a full reconstruction, it may be a better choice if your driveway is getting too old or has extensive structural damage.


If you're looking to replace the pavement on your parking lot or highway, you'll want to know how much asphalt resurfacing and overlay services will cost. The cost will depend on a few different factors, including the square footage of the road, depth of repairs, and additional materials. To get a fair estimate, ask the contractors for an estimate for the labor required to resurface or overlay your road.


The preparation for asphalt resurfacing and overlay services begins with the removal of failed sections of the roadway. These sections are removed and replaced with a new section, either an asphalt overlay or a slurry resurfacing project. Inspectors determine which areas need resurfacing or replacement and may need surface treatment or a modified seal. This process should be performed systematically. The resulting resurfaced section will be up to one and a half inches higher than the existing concrete.


Using asphalt resurfacing and overlay services is an affordable and effective way to fix the problems on your pavement. Overlays can repair small cracks in your pavement, as well as fix larger ones. They are ideal for repairs of older pavements that have deteriorated. They can also improve the look of your parking lot or driveway. But how can you tell which one is right for you? Here are some tips to determine whether asphalt resurfacing and overlay services are right for you.


Overlays are an inexpensive solution to minor cracks in your asphalt driveway. However, they should only be used on a limited number of spots, such as minor stains and ruts. Overlays are not recommended for severely damaged asphalt because they may add to your total replacement cost. Instead, choose an asphalt repair company that offers a comprehensive range of resurfacing options. Listed below are the common problems associated with overlays.

 Asphalt Striping in Somerville, TN

Asphalt is an expensive and a very common pavement material. Protecting it from inclement weather is important.

Asphalt Striping Contractors Remove Existing Strips and Paint Buttons

Asphalt striping is vital for proper parking lot upkeep. Sealing concrete helps prevent cracking and extends the life of the underlying asphalt. If protecting your investment is of topmost importance, asphalt striping should definitely be part of any asphalt maintenance schedule and road construction plan. 

Asphalt parking lots, including industrial ones, have inclement weather-related conditions more often than other parking lots. Snow, rain, sleet and even ice; conditions make this a challenge for even the most seasoned asphalt striping company. To deal with inclement weather, asphalt paint protects the integrity of the asphalt. It also works as an anti-corrosion agent. By preventing cracking and chipping, this anti-icing paint reduces the need for additional sealcoating in the future.

If the parking lot is new, it's wise to protect it with a basic asphalt striping paint. This can be applied on a new parking lot after its construction has been completed. The good side to using a standard asphalt striping paint is that it's very inexpensive. It's also easy to apply and requires only moderate labor input. A parking lot with inclement weather should be sealed immediately with a regular anti-icing paint.

Asphalt striping and sealing are both done with latex paint. These two methods work very well in combination because they seal the edges and provide a protective coat against moisture. Latex also helps to give the edges a polished appearance that many people appreciate. Because both methods use little labor, your total cost is likely to be less than what would be required for hiring professionals to complete the job. In addition, the asphalt striping will be finished sooner than what would happen if you were to hire a professional paving company.

Asphalt line striping and asphalt parking lot sealing are done with polyurethane paint. Unlike many other types of paint, polyurethane doesn't crack or chip. This type of paint is very resistant to sunlight and won't fade. By applying the polyurethane coating, you can protect your painted surface from fading even during inclement weather. You can easily scrape off the old paint and replace it with the new polyurethane coat.

Because asphalt parking lots and street markings are exposed to rain and snow, they need to be sealed in order to protect the integrity of the pavement markings and prevent leaks. Sealcoating is done on asphalt surfaces when the weather gets below freezing. You must apply the coating when the pavement is wet because the cold air will seal the moisture in the asphalt. When you drive over an asphalt parking lot, the water that has accumulated on the surface will freeze and will turn white when it gets cold. This gives you the appearance of ice.

The old driveway at your home could use a makeover. In addition to increasing curb appeal, you can improve safety and reduce energy costs by sealing your asphalt and improving the appearance of your driveway. Professional paving companies use the latest technology to seal your asphalt and lines with an advanced epoxy polyurethane coating that will not crack or chip. Improved sealing methods help prevent future water damage to your asphalt and lines. You will also find that your parking lot and street signs will be more durable and safer to drive over because of improved traction and design.

If you are looking for an economical and aesthetic appeal, epoxy polyurethane paints for paved areas can provide you with the look and durability that you want without the expense and labor of removing existing stripes and paint chips. Polyurethane gives you the benefit of high-performance, low maintenance and long-lasting protection from water, sun, stains and wear and tear. Epoxy also provides a non-reflective surface that will reduce glare and other eye-weariness associated with paints.

 Chip Sealing in Somerville, TN

Chip Sealing Service

The first step in getting a Chip Sealing Service is to prepare the surface. Once the surface is prepared, it should be protected from traffic and other damage from all directions. A trained professional should also remove loose gravel before starting the sealing process, as these can damage the new surface. If you choose to have the sealers do the chip sealing process, be sure to hire a company that has experience and expertise in this area. The results will be worth the expense, and your car will look great for many years to come.

Chip seal

A chip sealing service can help you make your pavement look like new again. Chip seals are made from a combination of small stones and a specialized emulsion. When you use chip seals, they must be applied before the binder sets. Brooming too soon can ruin the new surface. Experts at GPM know the best practices to apply chip seals and can help you choose the right type of emulsion for your needs.

Slurry seal

Slurry seal is a type of concrete application on roads. It is usually applied after chip seal has been installed on the road. A distributor truck applies a mixture of asphalt, aggregate, and filler on the surface of the road. A roller then embeds the chips in the pavement. Five days after applying chip seal, the street is swept to remove loose chips. Five days later, a slurry seal application is completed. The mixture is squeegeed by hand to achieve uniformity. In 1999, a typical slurry seal installation cost was $1.20/square yard. The lifespan of a chip seal treatment is four to six years.

Fog seal

To extend the life of fog seals, chip sealing service providers apply emulsified asphalt to roadways. Emulsifiers allow asphalt to remain in a liquid state and prevent excessive heating. This method is especially effective on larger roadway projects. However, the process has disadvantages, including the need for heavy equipment. Here are a few advantages of fog seals. Read on to learn more. This method is a great complement to chip sealing.

Slurry seal vs chip seal

Slurry seals are a good, economical alternative to chip-sealed roads. They can last longer than chip-sealed pavements and don't contain loose aggregate. Slurry seals can withstand turning traffic as well as straight-line traffic, but the difference between these two types of pavements lies in their application. Chip-sealed roads have a more uniform, smooth surface than slurry-sealed roads. Type I slurry contains about an eighth of an inch of aggregate and is typically used in low-wear areas where maximum crack penetration is needed.

Cost of chip seal

While asphalt repaving is a popular option for driveways, the price of chip seal is much less than for asphalt. This is because chip seal requires less material and is cheaper per square yard. However, the price varies considerably from driveway to driveway. Chip seal requires some setup costs, which are proportionate to the size of the job. However, because long, straight sections require less handwork, chip seal costs are much lower.

Maintenance of chip seal

Chip seal is a protective wearing surface that can be applied to new pavements. It can also be applied to aging pavements with surface distress. The chip sealing process slows the aging process of paved roads and reduces the need for frequent resurfacing. Although chip seals are relatively inexpensive, they can pose a few inconveniences to motorists. These may include dust, loose gravel, and one-way traffic. Travelers should also slow down while driving until the loose gravel is completely removed.

 Commercial Paving in Somerville, TN

Commercial paving involves the repairing and maintenance of public and private properties. In many countries, the government allocates a part of its budget for the paving of roads, buildings and other structures. The maintenance and repair of pavements and walkways is a regular task that is entrusted to commercial paving companies. There are a number of types of pavements, such as drainage, traffic control, beautification, and parking lots. For any establishment, it is important to have a well-maintained and beautiful pavement to make them look presentable and appealing.

Commercial Paving Services for Improvement of Business Facilities

Commercial paving can also be damaged by some external factors, such as severe weather, vandalism, careless parking, and the use of unsanitary practices. When parking lot owners or operators do not maintain their parking lots properly, they may find themselves liable for damages that arise due to such negligence. If asphalt pavement is prone to deterioration due to heavy rains or the use of an inferior sealant, they may end up having to repair the damaged areas. Repairing such damages may prove to be a costly venture, which is why it is essential to contact a reliable company that can provide durable, attractive, and cost-effective repairs.

A good commercial paving company should be able to provide durable and attractive commercial concrete structures that are able to withstand any type of weather. These structures should also be repaired or replaced easily and efficiently, in order to prevent inconveniences to both customers and business owners. A reputable company should always be able to perform regular maintenance activities such as drainage cleaning, color change, and stone removal. These tasks are important to maintain the cleanliness and condition of commercial concrete, which in turn helps in maintaining the value of the property.

One of the main tasks of any paving company is to maintain the overall appearance of its commercial parking lot or building. This can be achieved by regularly cleaning out the parking lot. This is one of the most effective ways of promoting the brand image of the company. Furthermore, regular maintenance of the commercial paving services will allow business owners to identify possible problems such as cracks and other types of damage. Such issues can be resolved quickly, without the need to completely replace the commercial asphalt or concrete.

Cracks and other damage to pavement should never be overlooked as these can affect the overall durability of a pavement. A qualified paving job crew should be able to repair all types of cracks that could be found in asphalt pavements. In case cracks are located in an area with high traffic, it is advisable to get them repaired immediately. For this reason, it is necessary to choose a paving job crew that has established contacts with experienced contractors.

Apart from cracked and damaged asphalt pavements, another area that can benefit from the service of a paving contractor is the parking lots. Parking lots that are not properly maintained can lead to a lot of problems for business owners. When the parking lot is not properly paved, it can expose the vehicle tires to uneven conditions. In addition, if the parking lot is not properly maintained, it can also reduce the life span of the vehicle tires. Therefore, it is advisable to contact professional pavement repair services to have a parking lot repaired and maintained.

Another popular commercial service that many business owners hire is the installation of blacktop. Blacktop is a layer of asphalt on the paved surfaces of the building. It makes the driveways look more attractive and extends the life of the building's driveways. However, blacktop requires regular cleaning and maintenance. Professional blacktop installation should be done by trained professionals so that the blacktop will not slip and will not damage the surrounding areas.

It is important to hire professionals for blacktop installations because some DIY ideas can be dangerous and damaging. The material that is used for blacktop is asphalt and it is very thick. Hence, improper handling of this material can lead to cracks and potholes. In addition to this, the process of installing bitumen can be messy and long. If the surface of the parking areas are not cleaned and maintained regularly, they can cause damage to the asphalt.

 Crack Filling in Somerville, TN

In the business of asphalt crack filling, you'll find a number of tools and techniques that will ensure the job is done correctly.

Tips For Asphalt Crack Filling

To start, you'll need a method for cleaning the affected area. Next, you'll need a Melter to heat up the filler and a crack applicator to fill the fracture. These tools and techniques will last longer and keep your road looking great. You can also use a Sand liner to make crack repair easier.

Epoxy and acrylic crack fillers offer a longer lifespan

There are some important differences between epoxy and acrylic crack fillers. Epoxy is stronger and offers longer lasting results. Acrylic has a lower cost but is not as durable as epoxy. Both fillers have the potential for cracking and deterioration. Both types of fillers offer more than one purpose. Each has their benefits, but the pros and cons of each material should be considered before choosing one over the other.

They resist moisture

Moisture damage occurs to an asphalt mixture when moisture penetrates through the pavement. This results in a decrease in strength and durability. A road network in Egypt, for example, has seen severe deterioration from water intrusion. The bond between the asphalt film and aggregates breaks. The degree of saturation is determined by the composition and the media of attack. The anti-stripping additive, hydrated lime, is used to prevent further deterioration of the pavement. The degree of saturation is also affected by the amount of air voids. The ratio of hydration to tensile strength determines the level of resistance to moisture damage.

They prevent potholes

If you want to avoid potholes, then you should consider asphalt crack filling. Potholes begin as small divots and gradually grow into large holes. This preventative maintenance can be done with supplies available from your local hardware store. Small cracks on the road can be easily repaired by patching them with an asphalt crack filler. This will save you money in the long run, as you will not have to spend money on expensive repairs to your car.

They prevent weeds

A cement crack filler can also keep weeds from growing in your asphalt driveway. You can buy horticultural vinegar, which is 20 percent acetic acid, and mix it with orange oil and phosphate-free dish soap. These chemical burns plant top growth and prevents them from photosynthesizing. However, be careful! This chemical can cause a mild burn and can harm the skin and eyes, so use it carefully.

They provide curb appeal

The appearance of a parking lot has a lot to do with a building's curb appeal. Curb appeal is a critical factor in sales and other observable property attributes. When a parking lot has cracks or is in poor condition, it will impact visitors and can lower the liability of the property owner. Properly maintained parking lots also enhance curb appeal, and the right crack fillings can help improve the appearance of a parking lot.

 Crack Sealing in Somerville, TN

The process of asphalt crack sealing is a great way to improve the appearance of your driveway or parking lot. 

How to Evaluate the Effectiveness of Asphalt Crack Sealing

There are several factors to consider before choosing the right type of sealant: cost, environmental impact, and quality. Listed below are some of the main factors to consider. Once you've decided which method to use, you can move forward to the next step: evaluating the quality of sealants and the effectiveness of your crack sealing project.


To determine the effectiveness of different methods of crack sealing, researchers have analyzed the performance of unsealed and sealed pavement. Most studies have focused on unsealed pavement and found that sealing improves pavement performance. However, not many studies have compared the cost-benefit of different techniques. This research aims to address this gap. In this article, we will discuss the differences and similarities between these two methods.

Although it is an important preventive maintenance strategy, pavement experts differ on which method is more cost-effective. Using literature review, a survey, and field performance data, researchers have developed a cost-effectiveness guideline for pavement crack sealing. The results from this study provide a basis for comparing the various methods. Crack sealing is also more expensive than crack filling. Despite its initial high cost, crack sealing may offer longer service. More research is needed to determine whether higher performance materials are truly beneficial.

Environmental impact

While asphalt crack sealing may not have a negative environmental impact, it can have a detrimental impact on pavements. When applied improperly, crack sealing can cause damage to asphalt pavements due to moisture entrapment. Unlike other types of surface treatments, crack sealing prevents water from escaping upwards. In fact, crack sealing can reduce the lifespan of pavements by 1.1 to 2 years. This can lead to an increase in maintenance and rehabilitation costs.

This study shows that a crack seal technique can reduce emissions of nitrogen oxide and sulphur dioxide by 50 percent. However, the crack seal method has the lowest overall emission reduction. The researchers suggest that all methods of preventive maintenance reduce carbon dioxide emissions. They recommend that new pavement studies incorporate sustainable pavement management components and consider the environmental impact of asphalt crack sealing. The study concludes that future pavements must incorporate a comprehensive life-cycle assessment to evaluate their overall environmental impact.

Quality of sealant

When determining the quality of asphalt crack sealant, consider the following factors: Size, shape, moisture content, and repair method. Crack sealant's success depends on several factors. Generally, a crack less than 20% in crack density requires a more flexible product. In contrast, a larger crack density requires a stiffer sealant. In addition, sealant's tackiness decreases after it has been cured.

When choosing an asphalt crack filler, make sure to choose one with the right adhesive properties. Asphalt filler is not rubberized, and it might dislodge if the pavement moves. Sealant, on the other hand, expands and contracts with the pavement. If the crack filler doesn't expand and contract with the pavement, it is not the right choice. For this reason, choosing a high-quality asphalt crack filler is imperative.

 Driveway Paving in Somerville, TN

Whether you're replacing your old driveway or simply trying to improve your curb appeal, there are a few things you need to know about driveway paving. From the cost to the materials used, here are some helpful tips to guide your next project.

What You Need to Know About Driveway Paving

The best way to determine the true cost of your driveway paving project is to get a free estimate from a driveway paving specialist near you. There are many experts ready to help. The cost of a new driveway will vary greatly depending on the size, shape, and material of the driveway.

There are four main types of driveways. They are asphalt, concrete, gravel, and pavers. All four come in different styles and performance qualities. The most popular material is a paving stone.

However, you can also install a small gravel driveway. If you are a green space fan, you may want to consider installing a grass paver instead.

The cost of driveway paving will depend on the size of your driveway, the material you choose, and the labor required. This includes the actual installation of the driveway as well as the disposal of the old material.

The cheapest material for a driveway is a gravel one. The average price ranges from a few hundred to a few thousand dollars. Alternatively, you can pay for the labor to lay down a paver base.

A properly constructed driveway can last decades. The most durable type is a gravel or grass filled plastic paver. These can be easily replaced if they start to wear out.

 Earthwork and Grading in Somerville, TN

Earthwork and grading both play important roles in the construction process, but what exactly is each? The process of earthwork is defined as any work involving the movement of earth or soil. Grading involves the grading of the soil to conform to the requirements of a construction plan. There are many types of earthworks and grading. Let's take a look at some of them.

Earthwork and Grading - Tools to Help You Create the Project of Your Dreams

Soil grading involves analysis and testing of the soil. Basically, earthwork and grading tasks include Subgrade leveling and preparation. Backfilling. Subgrade engineering.

One of the most common types of earthworks and grading is backfilling. It is the filling of an underground pit or hole with earth. Most backfill jobs are for roads and utilities, although some home and commercial projects also use this service. Backfills involve the removal of earth that does not move into a new hole. The cost of a backfill job ranges depending on the size and material of the hole being filled.

Backfills can be as small as 5 feet, where as large as hundreds of yards are used for roadbeds and huge excavations. In the excavation type of earthwork, the job requires a giant tool like a bulldozer or tractor. The smaller earthwork and grading services entail the removal of earth using a digging machine, a scoop or a truck.

Shiloh is a type of earthwork and grading project that involves cutting horizontal slits in the earth to create pockets for pipes and electrical wires. There are two types of Shiloh. One kind is horizontal, and one is vertical. In horizontal Shiloh, the earth is removed horizontally, and the ground is leveled off. In vertical Shiloh, the earth is removed vertically, and the soil moved to create pockets for various pipes and electrical wires.

Earthwork and grading involve digging large trenches and then burrowing and pouring the earth inside them. Most earthwork and grading jobs require large, heavy earth mills. When choosing an earthwork company, you should look for experience in the type of earthwork and grading that you need. You should also inquire about the cost and whether they use specialized equipment for their earthwork jobs.

Earthwork and grading companies have their own work sites and operations. Some of them are large operations that include several people and earthmovers and half the total workforce of the land works force. Other companies operate just individually, with a few operators and a few machines. It depends on your needs and the size of your job. Some of the earthwork and grading projects can be completed quickly while others may take a few months before they're done.

When you choose a company for earthwork and grading, you should request for a free estimate. This will give you a good idea of what the project is going to cost you. It's important to know what the total cost will be before you agree to anything. There are many companies that are only concerned about the money they'll make on the project, while many companies will offer a free quote so you can determine whether or not the estimate is realistic or not. It is important to compare the costs of various companies because some of them charge you for the earthwork and grading as well as the labour charges. The cheapest company won't always be the best choice for your projects.

There are different kinds of earthwork and grading services that you can use for your projects. For example, you can use earthmoving earthworks and grading services to help you move the soil on your farm. You can also use this kind of service to level the topsoil in your backyard or in your patio. There are several kinds of earthwork and grading equipment that can be used for these projects.

You can find earth mills, trucks, and other equipment on the internet. There are also companies that can provide the equipment for your project. Many of the companies that have earthwork and grading equipment online can offer a reasonable price, so you don't have to worry about the cost of hiring outside help for your earthwork and grading project. They can also offer estimates for your projects.

Earthwork and grading can be very beneficial to you. This is especially true if you have a large amount of land that you need to work. You will be able to create projects on your own instead of relying on contractors. If you would like to make your own projects, then it is important that you learn about earthwork and grading first. This will allow you to have better success with your earthwork and grading projects. If you want to make sure that your projects are done right the first time, then you will need to make sure that you are prepared to learn all about earthwork and grading.

 Parking Lot Paving in Somerville, TN

Whether you're building a new parking lot or upgrading the one you already have, you should be aware of the process involved. From the initial site work to the final coating, it's important to take the right steps.

How to Properly Prepare Your Parking Lot for Paving

First, you'll want to choose a contractor with the expertise and experience to get the job done right. Your contractor should also be willing to provide a full estimate of materials and labor, and the cost will vary depending on the size and complexity of your project.

Next, you'll want to decide on the type of asphalt you'll use. Traditionally, asphalt paving has been done using base asphalt mixtures over an aggregate layer. This is the most common method. The advantages of this approach include the ability to keep the parking lot at a constant elevation, which eliminates the need for underdrains.

You'll also need to decide on how you'll handle water management. The amount of water your pavement can handle is a key factor in its longevity. If you're unable to control how much moisture a surface can absorb, it can cause damage.

In addition, you'll need to make sure your sub-base is adequately prepared for a new asphalt surface. Most subgrade soils contain silt and clay. This can cause moisture to penetrate the sub-base and undermine the structural strength of the pavement.

You'll also want to consider the appropriate thickness of your asphalt paving. The thickness of your base course and surface course will depend on how much traffic your parking lot gets.

 Residential Paving in Somerville, TN

Asphalt paving for residential driveways is a cost effective and long-lasting alternative to concrete. This type of paving offers many advantages, including high skid resistance, low maintenance, and a smoother surface. It is often used to pave pathways, parking lots, and even cart paths.

Tips For Installing Residential Paving

One of the biggest advantages of asphalt is its ability to be designed to suit a wide variety of soils and conditions. A good paving contractor will also take into consideration budgetary concerns as well as the durability of the product.

The most popular type of residential paving is the asphalt driveway. These driveways are a cost-effective and attractive way to enhance the look of your home. However, installing a new one is not an easy task. As a result, you should hire a reputable paving company.

Before you begin, you should make sure that the project is approved by the municipality. Depending on the size of your property, you may need to work with the zoning board or planning department. If your paving job includes a subdrain, you will also have to consider the water management for the job.

If you have an existing concrete driveway, it may be possible to simply remove it and have the subbase converted to a new subbase for overlaying. However, this is not always the best option. For example, if your property has clayey soil, you will have to prepare the subbase properly.

Other options include the use of decorative concrete or an asphalt resurfacing process. Regardless of the material you choose, you should always look for the best paving company for your project. You can do this by contacting the Better Business Bureau or visiting the projects of potential contractors.

The best way to determine the appropriate thickness of asphalt is to take into account the specific needs of your project. While there are no hard and fast rules, a good rule of thumb is to use at least 2" of asphalt for residential projects.

The smallest sized square yard of asphalt weighs between two and four tons. When comparing the cost of different types of paving materials, you should also consider the cost of labor, the costs of materials, and the time involved in the process. In addition, you will need to decide whether you would rather have an underdrain or not. Many residential driveways don't require underdrains, but some may.

Another advantage of an asphalt paving is the fact that it's much less expensive to install than other paving materials. In addition, it is far less susceptible to cracking than other types of paving materials. Lastly, it is very durable, allowing it to last for years without requiring a lot of maintenance.

Whether you are looking for a new residential driveway or resurfacing your current one, you should seek the help of a trusted paving contractor. The right choice can mean the difference between a beautiful and functional driveway and a disastrous one. Moreover, a good paving company will be able to answer all of your questions and address all of your concerns, helping you get the most out of your paving budget.

 Seal Coating in Somerville, TN

Seal Coating Your Home

When you are considering seal coating your home, you need to decide how much the service will cost and what benefits it will offer. Here are some of the advantages and disadvantages of using tar-based sealants, and the requirements for seal coating. Continue reading to learn more! You can also learn about the different types of sealants and how they can benefit your home. But before you decide to get your home sealed, you should know what it takes to make your house look great afterward.

Costs of seal coating

Cost of seal coating differs according to the type and amount of surface it is applied to. Residential properties typically require a single coat of seal coating to protect them from the elements. Commercial properties, on the other hand, may require more than one coat. Commercial properties include office buildings, shopping centers, corporate campuses, industrial parks, self-storage facilities, trucking facilities, and retirement communities. Homeowners' associations, apartments, and hospitality properties can also benefit from seal coating.

Seal coating requires proper preparation and materials. Unlike painting, seal coating involves a little bit of equipment. While you can hire a professional seal coating company, the average homeowner cannot afford to hire a sealcoat professional. The cheapest tool is an industrial push broom. You can also use a power blower to remove debris, which can cost more than $1500. Once you've found a reliable seal coating contractor, it's time to get to work!

When it comes to materials, the cost of sealcoat depends on the amount of surface area it covers. The larger the surface area, the more expensive the sealant and labor. The table below outlines the materials, equipment, and labor costs of seal coating projects. Each category has its own breakdown. If you're unsure of the exact amount you'll spend, contact a sealcoat contractor in your area and ask them to provide an estimate.

In addition to saving on labor costs, DIY seal coating is a fun way to spend quality time with family and friends. While DIY seal coating is a great way to save money, it requires poor-quality tools, trial and error, and can even cause you to ruin clothes and skin. For these reasons, hiring a seal coating company is still a smart idea. If you're considering starting a seal coating business, consider the costs and profit potential to get started.

The average cost for seal coating a parking lot is approximately 40 cents per square foot. But that cost can be considerably higher depending on the type of equipment and sealant you choose. Low-end sealants cost anywhere from six to nine cents per square foot and will cover up to 400 square feet. Top-grade sealants will cost as much as $25 per pail. There are many factors that determine the total cost for seal coating a parking lot.

Benefits of seal coating

Besides its aesthetic benefits, seal coating also helps extend the life of pavements. Its non-porous surface makes cleaning easier, while its superior sun blocking properties prevent fading of colors. Moreover, the process of seal coating is more cost-effective than overlaying the entire pavement. And the savings are significant since seal coating requires minimal maintenance and reduces repair costs. Therefore, it is beneficial for business owners to invest in seal coating services.

Besides providing an extra layer of protection, seal coating can also prevent cracks. Water will seep into untreated asphalt, spreading cracks and weakening its integrity. However, seal coating prevents such damages by creating a protective layer on top of the asphalt. As a result, the pavement looks newer and lasts longer. In addition to this, pavement problems will be less frequent and will only show up if the seal coating process is not followed.

Another benefit of seal coating is that it helps accelerate the melting of snow. When applied, seal coating also protects against rain, frost, and water penetration. However, you should make sure that the temperature of the pavement and the surrounding air are above 55 degrees Fahrenheit. Before applying the seal coat, make sure that the surface is free from dust and debris. If you need to cover a large area with seal coating, you can also use a sprayer.

Apart from being more cost-effective, seal coating can improve the appearance of your parking lot. For example, if your parking lot is in good shape, your customers will feel safer when they park their vehicles. In addition to this, seal coating prevents potholes and asphalt cracks, which make parking lots look slick and safe. And if your parking lot looks old and shabby, potential customers will be repelled by it.

Similarly, asphalt pavements are susceptible to cracks and oxidation. Moreover, the expansion of water as ice can weaken the surface of the asphalt. And in some cases, the asphalt will completely wash out, destroying the gravel base beneath it. However, seal coating can significantly extend the lifespan of an asphalt surface. And if you're wondering whether asphalt pavements need to be sealed, here's what you need to know.

Disadvantages of tar-based sealants

Many cities are hesitant to use coal tar products in new pavement. This is largely because of the carcinogenic risk of the substance, which is readily absorbed through the skin. In addition to this, coal tar-based sealants are not as long-lasting as asphalt alternatives. Therefore, customers might simply give up on resealing their pavement. This, in turn, could lead to a higher rate of resealing.

The environmental problems caused by coal tar-based sealants have prompted bans in 10 states and the District of Columbia. While research on trends in PAHs indicates that the pollution from coal tar-based sealants is not the main cause of PAHs, it may reduce their concentrations in urban water bodies. For example, a study by the University of New Hampshire found elevated levels of these chemicals in areas adjacent to coal tar. Additionally, officials in Austin, Texas, found high levels of PAHs in their waterways, which were attributed to coal tar-based sealants.

Another disadvantage of tar-based sealants is the high cost. Coal tar is expensive and not durable enough for commercial applications. In addition, it has been linked to increased traffic wearout, a condition known as raveling. DOT inspectors usually notice this problem when they come to inspect your pavement. There are no approved alternatives to coal tar emulsions. But coal tar has several advantages.

In addition to the high cost, it also contributes to pollution in the air. Children living near sealed parking lots ingest up to fourteen times more PAHs than children who don't live near these parking lots. Also, the dust generated by sealcoat abrading can lead to higher levels of PAHs than the concentrations in the air around a car. And if you're a sealcoat applicator, your skin is exposed to a higher dose of this toxic substance than you would inhale.

A study from 2009 suggests that coal-tar-based sealcoat contributes to greater PAHs than any other source. According to this study, coal-tar-based sealcoat contributed to 58 percent of the PAHs in Lady Bird Lake, a reservoir on the Colorado River in Austin. Since then, other cities have followed Austin's lead. In addition to imposing a fine, violating companies may face jail time.

Requirements for seal coating

The initial application of sealcoat is important, but proper mix design and application rates are also important. Using a proper mix design procedure and Materials Inspection is essential to the success of any seal coat application. Once the binder is applied to the roadbed, the cover aggregate shall be removed by a rotary power broom. Then, pneumatic tire rollers will embed the cover aggregate. The inflation pressure for the rollers must be at least 80 psi. In this process, the contractor must adhere to a uniform spread pattern.

A proper cure time for sealcoats depends on weather conditions. The sealcoat material needs direct sunlight for the majority of its drying time. A mostly cloudy surface prevents proper drying and can significantly reduce the quality of the finished coating. If the surface is not fully dry, the application may be delayed or abandoned. For best results, the surface must be dry and free of water and dust before the final application. Then, the coating should cure for at least eight hours before it is opened to traffic.

The correct mix of a sealer is necessary to achieve a satisfactory result. The manufacturer of the sealer should recommend any additives that will enhance the performance of the sealer. If they are not supplied by the same manufacturer, it is advisable to consult the producer and manufacturer before making changes to the mix. Additionally, it is necessary to strictly follow the instructions on application and drying time. If the application process is not properly performed, the sealer may not be effective and may cause premature wear.

A good surface is essential for the proper application of a seal coat or chip seal. For instance, a surface that is subject to heavy traffic must be level before applying the seal coat or chip seal. This will prevent bleeding, or the asphalt being tracked or failing due to excessive traffic. When the surface is unstable, a leveling course can be used before applying the seal coat or chip seal. When the surface is stable, the marking process can follow.

 Site Construction in Somerville, TN

Site construction is the process of preparing the ground for the construction of a building or structure. It includes a number of different tasks, including clearing the site, excavating, and grading. It also involves putting in drainage and piping for sewer and water lines.

The Importance of Site Construction

It’s important to prepare the site properly if you want your new building to last for many years. A good sitework contractor starts by clearing the space of debris and brush to ensure that it’s level. They then compact the soil and do fine grading work to create a solid foundation for the rest of the project.

The Site Sketch is a vital part of the planning stage for any building project. It helps real estate developers and local municipal officials determine whether or not the project is feasible. It includes a rough layout of the entire construction site. It's a great way to get everyone on the same page about the proposed design.

Once a site sketch is approved, the project can move forward. A civil engineer will take the drawing and create a detailed plan that captures major elements of site construction, including drainage, utilities, and sitework.

Having a site sketch in hand when it comes time to bid on the project will save you a lot of time and money down the road. It can also help you avoid a lot of hassles by making sure that the project doesn’t go over budget.

A good sitework contractor will have all of the necessary equipment to complete these jobs efficiently and safely. They will also be able to provide you with the information you need about how much the job will cost and how long it will take to complete.

Construction Sites Are Dangerous

A construction site is a place where many people gather and work together. It is very important to ensure that all workers are safe at all times, as they are working with heavy machinery and potentially dangerous materials. Several safety measures can help ensure that the site is safe, including proper signage and the installation of emergency kits and first aid supplies.

These measures can be expensive, but they are well worth it. They can prevent accidents and injuries and can reduce the costs associated with lost productivity due to illness or injury.

The cost of sitework is not just a one-time expense; it's something that should be budgeted for on a regular basis as you build your home or office. It's an investment in your property that will pay off for years to come.

There are a variety of different sites that you can purchase for your construction project. These can range in price depending on the location and the type of building you're planning to build.

Some sites are more expensive than others, so it's important to do your research and find the right place for you. You'll want to consider factors like traffic flow, the view from your front door, and the quality of the soil in the area.

 Tar and Chip in Somerville, TN

When choosing between two types of paving materials, it is important to consider how much they cost, how durable they are, and how they look. 

Tar and Chip Paving

If you are considering tar and chip paving for your home, this article will provide you with a brief overview of the pros and cons of both. Continue reading to learn more about the two most popular types of driveways. We also provide you with tips to make your driveway last as long as possible.


Unlike asphalt, tar and chip paving has a much longer lifespan. Because it is made in layers, tar and chip won't be as thick as asphalt. However, they are just as durable. Tar and chip is more affordable than asphalt, so you can easily install it on your driveway without having to worry about the cost. Here are some pros and cons of tar and chip paving. Read on to learn more.

While tar and chip driveways are not as durable as asphalt or concrete, they are still very durable, lasting anywhere from seven to ten years. These driveways also feature great traction. The cost of tar and chip paving is typically between $2 and $5 per square foot, depending on the type of material and amount of traffic. They also look good and last for several decades. Nevertheless, tar and chip driveways are generally not suitable for high-traffic areas.


The price of Tar and Chip paving can vary greatly depending on the type of material used. The standard method involves placing hot liquid bitumen asphalt over a compacted surface. Once this has been completed, a layer of "chip" will be applied. The "chip" can be made of a variety of materials, including recycled concrete or asphalt ground into small particles. Once this layer has been applied, the driveway will be sealed and waterproof.

When comparing the cost of asphalt paving, tar and chip is the cheaper option. The material costs approximately $2 to $5 per square foot. A full tar and chip paving project can cost anywhere from $650 to $3,000, depending on the size of the driveway. Once installed, the tar and chip pavement will last anywhere from seven to ten years. However, homeowners may decide to add another layer after a few years to increase its longevity.


The most significant difference between traditional asphalt and tar and chip is their appearance. While asphalt has a 20-year lifespan, tar and chip is almost maintenance free. The tar and chip melts when heated, filling in cracks automatically. The difference between tar and chip and asphalt is striking - tar and chip look like an old gravel driveway. This is why many homeowners opt for tar and chip paving on large driveways.

A tar-and-chip driveway is built by first laying a gravel base. Then, hot liquid asphalt is applied on top. Then, loose stones are compacted into the bitumen to create a finished product with a classy appearance. This process eliminates the need for regular sealing, and it's less prone to crack. Frank Harrison Paving has the expertise to install this type of paving, providing quality installations in eastern NY/NJ and Bucks County PA.


The process of tar and chip paving maintenance requires that you work with the right equipment and apply the right amount of liquid asphalt. This process is critical for the longevity of the pavement and is usually performed during dry weather. The proper mix of liquid asphalt and water is applied on the existing pavement to ensure that it remains durable. Then, a layer of "gravel" or aggregate is added to the top of the liquid asphalt to create a slip-resistant surface.

In contrast to blacktop, tar and chip paving maintenance is almost zero. Unlike asphalt, tar and chip requires fewer repairs and sealing than blacktop. It does not show visible cracks like blacktop does, so the process is less time consuming. Plus, tar and chip surfaces have the advantage of providing extra traction during snow and wet conditions. Whether your driveway, parking lot, or street is asphalt or tar and chip, these surfaces are easy to clean.

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